IMDb summary: “Lorelai gives Rory, Paris, Madeline and Louise tickets to a Bangles concert, but the evening doesn’t go quite as planned” (IMDb).
Indigenous Land Acknowledgment: In beginning my work on this guide, I’ve come to realize just how many references (however subtle) Gilmore Girls contains to the Revolutionary War and the colonial history of the United States. It is important and necessary to acknowledge the people whose lands were usurped when these events took place, though this is not a simple question. Please visit the main page to view the results of my research and read the full acknowledgment.
All References in Chronological Order
feature – 04:20
SOOKIE: I have here in my hand, as requested by Ms. Lorelai Gilmore, four fabulous tickets to the Bangles at the Pastorella Theater on Saturday!
LORELAI: The Bangles are the best! They were my favorite group in high school. I almost named you Susanna.
Lane is wearing one of the Bangles Tour 2000 t-shirts Lorelai bought at the concert.
— The Bangles (previously mentioned in episode five at 16:30) are an all-female pop rock band from Los Angeles, California. They released a number of hit singles — two of which are featured in this episode — during Lorelai’s teen years in the 1980s. Rory’s almost-namesake, Susanna Hoffs, is the band’s lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist.
— The Pastorella Theater is a fictional New York City venue. The building exterior shown at 24:20 is actually the Steven J. Ross Theater at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. The t-shirt Lane wears at 36:10 is merchandise from the Bangles’ real-life 2000 reunion tour, but it is from the House of Blues in Los Angeles. (The same t-shirt is pictured here in a listing on Depop.)
mention – 05:15
MS. CALDICOTT: As I mentioned yesterday, we will be holding a debate next week. Your subject: did Charles I receive a fair trial? The pros will represent the Parliament who deemed they had sovereignty, and the cons will represent the monarch and try and prove that the charge against him was not legal.
— King Charles I of England (1600-1649) reigned over England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 to 1649. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, and his attempts at unilateral government led to disputes with Parliament. Many of his subjects disapproved of his policies, particularly tax levies and religious policies, the latter of which were considered by some to be too Catholic. These conflicts contributed to the English Civil War, in which Charles opposed the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments. He was defeated in 1645, and in 1649, he was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason.
reference – 07:00
PARIS: So unless you want to sit on no furniture while watching three Harvey Fierstein impersonators rip up the carpet and paint everything a ridiculous shade of white and call it “Angel’s Kiss,” then we’re going to have to find somebody else’s house to go to.
— Harvey Fierstein (born 1954) is a Tony Award-winning US actor, playwright and screenwriter. He is known for his theater work in Torch Song Trilogy (which opened in New York City in 1981 and was adapted for the screen in 1988) and Hairspray (which opened in Seattle in 2002 and is based on John Waters’ 1988 film of the same name). He has also appeared in the films Mrs. Doubtfire (1993) and Independence Day (1996), and lent his distinctive gravelly voice to the character of Yao in Disney’s 1998 animated film Mulan.
feature – 08:35
LANE: All three of ’em, huh?
RORY: Double, double, toil and trouble.
LANE: Well, it should make for an interesting afternoon.
RORY: With the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes.
LANE: You’re doing very well in that Shakespeare class, aren’t you?
— Rory is alluding to the three witches, or weird sisters, from William Shakespeare’s The Tragedie of Macbeth, which is thought to have debuted in 1606. The witches, “some of the most iconic and recognizable characters in Shakespeare’s work” (Study.com), often speak in rhyming couplets, including the famous lines, “Double, double, toil and trouble / Fire burn, and cauldron bubble,” and, “By the pricking of my thumbs, / Something wicked this way comes.”
mention – 09:35
MRS. KIM: You look flushed.
LANE: I do?
MRS. KIM: You eat candy?
MRS. KIM: Doughnut?
MRS. KIM: Hostess fruit pie?
— Hostess Cake, commonly known as simply Hostess, is a US bakery brand first introduced in 1919. While the brand is best known for its Twinkies and Hostess CupCakes, they also produce a “flaky pastry with custard filling” (Wikipedia) called a Fruit Pie. Up until 2006, the Fruit Pie even had its own branded mascot, Fruit Pie the Magician. These confections are all highly processed, and Twinkies, in particular, have a reputation for an inordinately long shelf life.
reference – 11:45
LORELAI: What hat?
RORY: The one on your head, Annie Oakley.
— Annie Oakley (born Phoebe Ann Moses, 1860-1926) was a US sharpshooter who gained international fame starring in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show. “She was a key influence in the creation of the image of the American cowgirl” (Wikipedia) and has been depicted a number of times in media, including the Irving Berlin Broadway musical Annie Get Your Gun (1946) based loosely on her life.
— In 1884, Oakley became acquainted with Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull, who was known worldwide by this point for his role in the Great Sioux War, or Black Hills War, of 1876. Sitting Bull “was so impressed with [Oakley’s] manner and abilities that he ‘adopted’ her and bestowed upon her the additional name ‘Little Sure Shot'” (Biography).
reference – 12:55
SOOKIE: Hold on, something down here likes me.
— Somebody Up There Likes Me is a 1956 US “drama film directed by Robert Wise and starring Paul Newman and Pier Angeli, based on the life of middleweight boxing legend Rocky Graziano” (Wikipedia). In the final scene, Graziano (Newman) tells his love interest, Norma (Angeli), “You know, I’ve been lucky. Somebody up there likes me!” to which she replies, “Somebody down here too.” Perry Como’s song of the same name opens and closes the film.
— In 1975, English singer-songwriter David Bowie released a song named for the film. Scottish rock band Simple Minds also have a similarly named song, “Somebody Up There Likes You,” released in 1982.
reference – 13:00
RORY: Jeez, this stuff is like tribbles.
— Tribbles are a species of small, furry, “voraciously hungry, and rapidly-multiplying” (Memory Alpha – Fandom) aliens within the Star Trek universe. They were first introduced in the 1966-1969 Original Series in the 1967 episode, “The Trouble with Tribbles,” in which the starship Enterprise is beset by a tribble infestation.
— Star Trek was previously referenced in episode six at 04:50 and in episode eight at 08:40.
mention – 13:50
MISS PATTY: I danced on these drums at the Copacabana in 1969.
— The Copacabana is a New York City nightclub named for a neighborhood in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. The Latin-themed club originally opened in 1940, and though it has changed locations several times over the years, it has become an enduring part of the city’s cultural history. It has been used as a location in numerous films, including Raging Bull (1980), Tootsie (1982), and Goodfellas (1990), and was the inspiration for the 1978 Barry Manilow song that shares its name.
mention – 17:55
MADELINE: I found an original Pucci top for practically nothing.
LOUISE: Oh, Pucci is very big right now.
— Pucci is an Italian fashion brand founded in 1947 by Emilio Pucci, a member of one of Florence’s oldest noble families. The brand is known for “geometric prints in a kaleidoscope of colors” (Wikipedia).
— Since the 1960s, Pucci’s designs have been worn by famous women including actress Sophia Loren, pop singer Madonna, and former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. The brand was favored by US actress Marilyn Monroe, who appeared in Pucci items in some of the final photographs taken of her before her death in 1962. When she died, she was even interred wearing a Pucci dress.
reference – 18:20
LOUISE: So how’s that going? Are you two still Joanie Loves Chachi?
— Joanie Loves Chachi was a US television series that aired from 1982 to 1983. A spin-off of the series Happy Days (1974-1984), it stars Erin Moran and Scott Baio as Joanie Cunningham and Chachi Arcola, a central couple from the original series.
— Unlike other spin-offs spawned by Happy Days, like Laverne & Shirley (1976-1983) and Mork & Mindy (1978-1982), Joanie Loves Chachi was a ratings failure and was cancelled in its second season.
reference – 18:55
LOUISE: So, how good of a kisser is Paul Bunyan anyway?
— “Paul Bunyan is a giant lumberjack and folk hero in [US] and Canadian folklore. … The character originated in the oral tradition of North American loggers, and was later popularized by freelance writer William B. Laughead…in a 1916 promotional pamphlet for the Red River Lumber Company. … His likeness is displayed in several oversized statues across North America” (Wikipedia).
— Bunyan’s character is known for his physical stature, and Jared Padalecki, the actor who plays Dean, is 6’4″ (1.93 m) according to his IMDb page.
reference – 19:35
SOOKIE: She was a very adventurous person. She loved to climb things, and fling herself off of cliffs, and dive into these really tiny lakes, and ride big, wild horses, and fly planes.
LORELAI: So she was Wonder Woman.
— Wonder Woman is a fictional superheroine within the DC Comics universe. She first appeared in comic form in 1941 and was portrayed by Lynda Carter in the live-action television series, Wonder Woman, from 1975 to 1979. (I would peg Lorelai as more of a TV watcher than a comic book reader, so I am placing this entry in the Film & Television category.)
— Wonder Woman was previously mentioned in episode eight at 12:55.
feature – 20:45
The girls are using Hi-Liter brand highlighters while they study.
— Hi-Liter is a brand of “felt-tip marker filled with transparent fluorescent ink instead of black or opaque ink” (Wikipedia) used to mark areas of text. Although all such markers are referred to by the generic term “highlighter,” Hi-Liter is the original brand of highlighter invented by Dr. Frank Honn in 1962.
mention – 22:00
LORELAI: One with cheese, one without. Cokes?
— Cola is a “carbonated soft drink flavored with vanilla, cinnamon, citrus oils and other flavorings. Most contain caffeine” (Wikipedia). Coca-Cola, or Coke, is the brand name cola manufactured by the Coca-Cola Company. It was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton as a temperance drink, an alternative to alcoholic beverages. Its name comes from two of its original ingredients: coca leaves (from which cocaine is derived) and kola nuts (the drink’s original source of caffeine).
— Coca-Cola was previously mentioned in episode nine at 01:45.
reference – 22:40
LORELAI: Well, I think you’re actually making some friends here.
RORY: Let’s not get ahead of ourselves. They basically just moved off the plan to dump the pig’s blood on me at prom, that’s all.
— Carrie is the 1974 debut novel of horror and supernatural fiction author Stephen King. It tells the story of Carrie White, “a friendless, bullied high-school girl” (Wikipedia) with telekinetic powers. In the novel, Carrie’s tormentors conspire to rig the prom queen election in her favor and dump buckets of pig’s blood on her when she is announced the winner.
— This scene is also depicted in the 1976 film adaptation directed by Brian De Palma and starring Sissy Spacek as Carrie. Lorelai and Rory would certainly have seen this film, but it seems just as likely that one or both of them might have read the book. King was previously referenced in the pilot at 17:15. The film adaptation of The Shining, another of King’s works, is referenced in episode two at 37:20 and in episode 11 at 22:55.
— “Carrie was one of the most frequently banned books in United States schools in the 1990s because of its violence, cursing, underage sex and negative view of religion.”
feature – 22:55
LORELAI: There. Pop-Tart appetizers to tide you over until the pizza comes.
— Pop-Tarts is a brand of pre-baked toaster pastry produced by Kellogg’s since 1964. “Pop-Tarts have a sweet filling sealed inside two layers of thin, rectangular pastry crust. Most varieties are also frosted” (Wikipedia). They are designed to be warmed inside a toaster or microwave oven, but can also be eaten straight from the package.
feature – 24:25
“Walk Like an Egyptian” by The Bangles
Episode context: This song plays over shots of the New York City skyline and the Pastorella Theater exterior, and continues as Sookie, Lorelai, and the girls enter the lobby.
LORELAI: With these tickets, you are about to enter sacred space. You will be treading on hallowed ground. You will be walking like an Egyptian.
— This song is a single from the 1986 album Different Light. “It was the band’s first number one single, being certified gold by the RIAA, and became Billboard‘s number-one song of 1987″ (Wikipedia).
reference – 26:20
PARIS: And before it’s dark, they’ll have every picnic basket that’s in Jellystone Park.
— Jellystone Park is a setting in the Hanna-Barbera cartoon series The Huckleberry Hound Show (1958-1961) and its spin-off The Yogi Bear Show (1961-1962). Yogi Bear, the star of the latter show and a supporting character of the former, “would often try to steal picnic baskets from campers in the park” (Wikipedia). Paris makes this remark after Madeline and Louise catch the eye of a couple of guys in the audience and is likely comparing Yogi’s collection of picnic baskets to Madeline and Louise’s pursuit of boys.
— Jellystone Park is based on the real-life Yellowstone National Park, located in the western US states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
— There is also a chain of family campgrounds throughout the US and Canada called Yogi Bear’s Jellystone Park Camp-Resorts. The first location was established in Wisconsin in 1969.
reference – 26:30
SOOKIE: Did you ever see Everest?
SOOKIE: It’s a good movie.
— Everest is a 1998 documentary film “about the struggles involved in climbing Mount Everest, the highest mountain peak on Earth, located in the Himalayan region of Nepal and China. It was releasd to IMAX theaters…and became the highest-grossing film made in the IMAX format” (Wikipedia).
feature – 27:45
“Hero Takes a Fall” by The Bangles
Episode context: Lorelai and Sookie are cracking up over how far from the stage their seats are when this song begins, opening the concert. Closer to the stage, Rory and Paris stand watching the performance; they also observe Madeline and Louise flirting with the guys near them in the audience.
— This song is one of two singles from the 1984 album All Over the Place. Although the album was only a moderate commercial success, it brought the band to the attention of singer-songwriter Prince, who would write their first hit, “Manic Monday.”
feature – 29:00
“Eternal Flame” by The Bangles
Episode context: This song plays in the background of Sookie’s and Lorelai’s conversation about Luke and Rachel. It continues as Madeline and Louise leave the concert, over Rory’s objections, to go to a party with the guys they’ve met.
— This song is a single from the 1988 album Everything and was a number one hit in nine countries, including the US.
reference – 29:45
LORELAI: Like what kind of pretty?
SOOKIE: What do you mean, what kind of pretty?
LORELAI: I mean, like, was she a Catherine Zeta-Jones kind of pretty or a Michelle Pfeiffer-y pretty, or–?
SOOKIE: She was an Elle MacPherson kind of pretty.
— Catherine Zeta-Jones (born 1969) is a Welsh actress known for the films The Mask of Zorro (1998), Entrapment (1999), Traffic (2000), and, subsequent to this episode, Chicago (2002).
— Michelle Pfeiffer (born 1958) is a US actress “recognized as one of the most prolific actresses of the 1980s and 1990s” (Wikipedia). She is known for her roles in Scarface (1983), The Witches of Eastwick (1987), Dangerous Liaisons (1988), and The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989).
— Elle MacPherson (born 1964) is an Australian model, actress, and businesswoman. “She is known for her record five cover appearances for the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue beginning in the 1980s, leading to her nickname “The Body”, coined by Time in 1989″ (Wikipedia). Today, she has her own lines of lingerie and skincare products.
mention – 31:40
MADELINE: The party’s in a building on the corner of Waverly and First. Try to get away.
— This intersection does not exist in actuality; while there is a Waverly Place in Greenwich Village, it does not intersect with First Avenue.
reference – 33:25
LORELAI: Think fast. T-shirts for all the girls because I am the Good Witch of the– Hey, aren’t you missing a couple kids?
— The Good Witch of the North is a character in L. Frank Baum’s 1900 children’s fantasy novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. She greets the protagonist, Dorothy, following the girl’s arrival in Oz and advises her to travel to the Emerald City to seek the help of the Wizard. In Victor Fleming’s 1939 film adaptation, The Wizard of Oz, this role is given to Glinda, a separate character from Baum’s series. As a result, the two characters are commonly conflated.
— In the novels, the Good Witch of the North is the elderly ruler of the Gillikin Country, and Glinda is the ruler of the Quadling Country. Glinda the Good Witch of the North, the hybrid character in the film, is beautiful and younger than her novel counterpart. However, in both portrayals, the character who greets Dorothy is kind, benevolent, and a powerful sorceress.
feature – 33:50
Before the episode cuts to Sookie, Lorelai, and the girls inside the apartment building, we see an establishing shot of a street with a sign reading “Downing St.”
— There is a Downing Street in New York City’s West Village, located southwest of Washington Square Park. (Waverly Place is immediately east of the park.)
— This street name is more famously associated with the City of Westminster in the United Kingdom, as it is the location of the official residences and offices of the country’s Prime Minister.
feature – 34:40
“I’m Gonna Make You Love Me” by The Jayhawks
Episode context: Lorelai locates the apartment where the party is taking place. One of the guys from the concert opens the door, and this song plays as Lorelai orders Madeline and Louise out of the apartment.
— From the 2000 album Smile.
reference – 35:10
LORELAI: You really want to end any further conversation with me right now, so just step aside, Skippy.
— “Skippy is a [US] comic strip written and drawn by Percy Crosby that was published from 1923 to 1945. A highly popular, acclaimed and influential feature about rambunctious fifth-grader Skippy Skinner, his friends and his enemies, it was adapted into movies, a novel and a radio show” (Wikipedia).
— Peanuts cartoonist Charles Schulz cited Skippy as an early creative influence, and the Skippy brand of peanut butter is also named for the comic strip.
reference – 36:10
LANE: Forget about the concert, I wanted to see Lorelai pull those idiots out of that guy’s apartment.
RORY: It definitely was a Kodak moment.
— The Eastman Kodak Company, often referred to as simply Kodak, is a US company best known for its photographic film products. Founded in 1892, the company dominated the photographic film market for most of the 20th century. “The company’s ubiquity was such that its ‘Kodak moment’ tagline entered the common lexicon to describe a personal event that deserved to be recorded for posterity” (Wikipedia).
References Consolidated by Category
- 09:35 – Hostess
- 17:55 – Pucci
- 20:45 – Hi-Liter
- 22:00 – Coca-Cola
- 22:55 – Pop-Tarts
- 36:10 – Kodak
- 07:00 – Harvey Fierstein
- 29:45 – Catherine Zeta-Jones
- 29:45 – Michelle Pfeiffer
- 29:45 – Elle MacPherson
Film & Television
- 12:55 – Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956)
- 13:00 – Star Trek
- 18:20 – Joanie Loves Chachi
- 19:35 – Wonder Woman
- 22:40 – Carrie (1976)
- 26:20 – The Huckleberry Hound Show
- 26:30 – Everest (1998)
- 33:25 – The Wizard of Oz (1939)
Geography & Politics
- 13:50 – the Copacabana
- 31:40 – Waverly and First
- 33:50 – Downing Street
- 05:15 – King Charles I of England
- 11:45 – Annie Oakley
- 08:35 – Macbeth by William Shakespeare
- 18:55 – Paul Bunyan (oral tradition)
- 35:10 – Skippy by Percy Crosby